This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the crucial participation of Numidian-Berber armies and tribes on both sides. Soon after this, his period of power ended, and he returned to Rome to be acclaimed as the saviour of the city, while normal rule resumed. His battle plan was suitably simple. If it had come to a trial of military strength in front of the walls of Rome, the odds were against Hannibal. While his campaign in southern Italy continued with some success, elsewhere the war had turned decisively against Carthage. Several hours of fighting saw 50,000 Roman soldiers killed, a bloodbath rarely equalled in a single days fighting, even on the western front. See Ebro Treaty. See Second Punic War Battles. Minucius returned his power to Fabius. Having defeated every army sent against him, it is natural that Hannibal would have expected to be able to repeat the performance. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. The Second Punic War was often known as Hannibal’s War in Rome. Their greatest successes came from a force of light Numidian cavalry, who raided Roman lands with impunity, although the Romans won a victory at the River Himera when the Numidian commander, Muttines, was absent. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War, (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, or "The Carthaginian War", lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. See Carthaginian-Macedonian Treaty. The total number of dead Romans was around 15.000 people. Across the end of May and June 217 BC, the two armies marched across Etruria, until Hannibal found an ideal location for an ambush at Lake Trasimene, where the road passed along a narrow stripe on land between the lake on one side and some hills on the other. However, after his death, nobility had to recognise Scipio’s authority, which was named because of his victories an African. Fixed. Dido was a Phoenician who fled and started the city of Carthage; Six story apartment buildings built of limestone; Cisterns, running water, indoor toilets, sewage system; Carthage Harbor. The Romans deployed 76,000 men on the battlefield. The Second Punic War took place in the years 218-201 BCE between Carthage and Rome. Battle of Ticinus Battle of TicinusPart of the Second Punic WarBattles second punic war.pngDateNovember, 218 BCLocationRight bank of lower Ticino River, present-day ItalyResultCarthaginian victoryBelligerentsCarthage standard.svg CarthageSpqrstone.jpg Roman RepublicCommanders and leadersHannibalPublius Cornelius Scipio … Despite pointedly rapid movement by Flaminius, Hannibal still managed to get over the passes unopposed, and once again take control of the situation, this time by marching straight past Flaminius, burning and pillaging as he went, and forcing the Romans to chase him. Although the Second Punic War spread to Greece, the fighting there, known as the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC) was something of a side issue, and involved almost no Punic troops, and rarely more than a single Roman legion. Carthage was forced to sue for peace, this time on harsher terms than in the previous year. Celtic people were not satisfied with Roman rule, and this help allowed Hannibal to rest his troops. It is certain that peace terms were offered, which included a Carthaginian withdrawal from Italy and Spain, the surrender of any claims to islands in the Mediterranean and a massive reduction in the size of their fleet as well as a fine of uncertain size. The three Punic armies in Spain were for once fairly close together, and the Romans apparently felt strong enough to defeat them all. Gaius Flaminius Nepos then decided to follow Hannibal without waiting for more army. A map illustrating the campaigns of the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE). However, Flaminius actions were well known to Hannibal who had well-organized scouts. Roman morale was still not badly shaken. Despite the capture of New Carthage and the departure of Hasdrubal Barca, the balance in Spain still appears to have favoured the Carthaginians. In this 60 Second History, we look at the Second Punic War - one of the most famous conflicts of the ancient world. Certainly, when the chance came to make the break with Rome, Hannibal seized it. Certainly there were strong Roman forces near to the city, which would have arrived in Rome before Hannibal, and the cities defences would have made it very hard for Hannibal to take the city. The Romans guarding the pass saw the lights, and chased off after the oxen, allowing Hannibal and his main army to slip through the pass unopposed. The next day he was able to provoke the Roman's into giving battle. ^ The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", and is a reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. This was reflected in the Roman politics. Hannibal route Second Punic War Publius Cornelius Scipio (Elder)– a Consul from 218 BC was already moving in the direction of Spain, because he wanted to fight with Hannibal. Carthage was no longer able to offer resistance. The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second of three Punic Wars between the Roman Republic and Carthage, with the participation of Macedonia and Syracuse polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides. Finally, Sicilian grain played a major part in feeding both the population of Rome, and the many legions by then in the field. The Allobroge tribe, which occupied the pass, did not respond to Hannibal's attempts at negotiation, and were clearly intending to raid his army as it passed along the narrow pass, vulnerable and strung out along a narrow path. However, Publius Cornelius Scipio had to stay in the northern Italy due to the rebel of Gauls. The Second Punic War (also called the Second Carthaginian War) was the second of three conflicts, known collectively as “The Punic Wars,” fought between the ancient powers of Rome and Carthage — a powerful city and imperial entity located across the Mediterranean from Southern Italy in modern-day Tunisia. At first, the Romans had a success, they occupied Sagunto, but in 211 BC, both Scipio’s brothers were defeated and killed by Carthaginians. Eventually, Scipio had his army, probably 25,000-30,000 strong, ready for the invasion. It was in a real sense the personal war of Hannibal. Gaius Flaminius defeat contributed to strengthening of the aristocratic party. Control of finances allowed the payment of contributions, without burdening the citizens by excessive taxes – a discontent of oligarchic party and the Romans suspiciousness. Hannibal: The Second Punic War, is a two-player game that covers the conflict between Carthage and Rome, during the period of 218 to 195 B.C. Very well-written article covering a large topic. They were also to pay an indemnity of 10,000 silver talents over a fifty year period, support Scipio's army until the peace was confirmed, and reduced their fleet to a mere ten ships. The invasion force set sail for Africa early in the spring on 204 BC. The Roman legions were a fearsome fighting machine, and the Spanish and Celtic troops came close to defeat. Assembly made a special decision to grant of imperium to the young Publius Cornelius Scipio and he was named proconsul (governor). The cavalry on the wings would hold Hannibal's superior horse for long enough for the infantry to do its job and destroy the Punic infantry, thus ending the threat from Hannibal. The Punic Wars were a series of wars between the Carthaginians and the Roman Republic that would catalyze the growth of the Roman territorial holdings as well as shape the ancient world for centuries to come. For some time Hannibal still appeared to be on the brink of success. Hannibal's plan relied on the fighting ability of his men. Hasdrubal was forced to flee to North Africa, Mago to Gades. The Carthaginians, under the military leadership of their general, Hannibal, marched into Italy and won several battle. For several days the two sides deployed for battle but did not fight. At the end of 203 BC, the Punic position was grim. Scipio was in Massalia when he heard the news of Hannibal’s movement. Humiliated after the First Punic War Carthage was still thinking about revenge on the Romans. Romans sent there Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio, and in 217 BC arrived in Spain, with reinforcements his brother Publius (Consul whom Hannibal broke in 218 BC). Background; Hannibal takes the initiative (218–213 BC) Hannibal's Overland Journey; First Roman expedition to Iberia This gained him a period of quiet, before individual tribesman started to attack the column. Rome was remarkably generous to those cities that returned to Roman allegiance voluntarily, rather than after defeat, and once the tide started to turn against Hannibal, many communities took the chance to disentangle themselves from his cause. Even so, the battle lasted for three hours, and Hannibal's own losses were not trivial. Two years later, in 209 BC Tarentum also fell to Rome. Fought across the entire Western … The Mercenary War (240-237 BC) Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after the First Punic War, even though Carthage lost the war to Rome. After the war Rome had gained Spain, secured control over the Mediterranean islands, and seen her first direct involvement in Greece. With this in mind, it is argued that a march on Rome could hardly have had a worse result. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). As it was, the Spanish and Celts held out until the Roman infantry had turned into more of an armed mob than an army, and when the Libyans attacked, they were unable to mount a serious defence. The Ebro Treaty is what ended the Second Punic War. The battle of Metaurus saw his army destroyed, and Hasdrubal himself killed. Although this new Punic army outnumbered the Roman force, Scipio was willing to offer battle. - Contact Us - Search - Recent - About Us - Subscribe in a reader - Join our Google Group Hannibal: The Second Punic War, is a two-player game that covers the conflict between Carthage and Rome, during the period of 218 to 195 B.C. The resulting battle saw a Roman victory, apparently ended by the weather, which prevented an attack on the strong Punic camp. In 212 BC, Romans besieged Capua but in order to distract them Hannibal headed to Rome. He stripped out the elderly and unfit from the garrison and replaced them with these new troops. An army somewhere between 55,000 and 74,000 strong, led by Hasdrubal Gisgo, moved into a position that made it clear he wanted battle. This move caused a legendary panic in Rome “Hannibal ante portas”. Second Punic War Battles > Battle of Ticinus. Carthage responded by raising another two armies, a Numidian army under Syphax, and a Punic army led by Hasdrubal Gisgo. The centre of their line contained 55,000 heavy infantry, along with 15,000 velites. However, the Romans were now in a dominant position. Flaminius died, although whether after panicking (Polybius) or after leading his men well (Livy), is unclear, and his army destroyed. Sagunto resisted over the course of eight months. He camped at the foot of the pass, and sent out scouts to investigate the Allobrogian positions, which dominated the pass. Even his closest collaborator Marcus Minucius was against this tactic, therefore during one occasion when Fabius Maximus was absent, Marcus Minucius managed to deliver a defeat to Carthaginians. The next year Hannibal was forced to march to defend his most important ally, but the Romans were not willing to risk a battle, and remained in their fortified lines. This impressed the Romans so much that against all customs Marcus was declared as second dictator. Once the Romans were in place at the other end of the defile, Hannibal marched his troops back around the hills, where by daybreak they were in place on the reverse side of the hills, hidden to the Romans, who marched straight into the trap. ^ The term Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus (or Poenicus), meaning "Carthaginian", and is a reference to the Carthaginians' Phoenician ancestry. Hasdrubal began by laying siege to Placentia, and sending messages south to his brother. This was a unique strategy for a Roman general of this period, who were far more likely to attack at the first chance. Armed with the knowledge of Hasdrubal's plans, the second Consul, Caius Claudius Nero, marched the best part of his army from southern Italy up to join Salinator, now facing Hasdrubal. Hannibal learnt of the Roman presence in time to make his escape upstream, and despite his best efforts Scipio only found Hannibal's camp three days after it had been abandoned. The Second Punic War (218-201 BC) Distrusting the Carthaginian politicians who surrendered to Rome, Hamilcar Barca moved to Iberia (modern Spain) looking to expand Carthaginian territory, and to one day attack Rome with an army from Spain. Zapoznaj się z przykładami tłumaczeń 'Second Punic War' w zdaniach, posłuchaj wymowy i przejrzyj gramatykę. The Senate decided on a last resort: two legions, which were formed of slaves. His troops were drastically reduced to 20.000 infantry and 6.000 equestrians. At Carthage the 'peace party' came to the fore, and a delegation was sent to Scipio to negotiate an end to the war. Flaminius path led through a narrow valley, which was lying between the mountains and Lake Trasimene. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and … The strategy of the Romans was such that the war was being waged on the opponent’s territory, and in that purpose one army landed in Africa and the other army in Spain. Coming Soon: Hannibal and the Second Punic War, 218-201BC Lesson PowerPoints and other Classroom Resources. For some time, Hannibal stayed near the city and after that, he retreated to Campania and headed to the south. The resulting battle of the Trebia saw Hannibal defeat a larger Roman force, probably of some 42,000 men. Three days after leaving Sicily, the army landed at Cap Farina, near the city of Utica. The Romans besieged Capua. It prevented Carthage from using Sicily as a base to reinforce Hannibal in Italy. Its seems a little counterintuitive to include the Second Punic War in Category:Third Punic War; As I mentioned, I rarely look at categories. In 211 BC a new Carthaginian commander, with a slightly reinforced army, led resistance from Agrigentum. While this war was a lot shorter than the First Punic War, it is most well known for the Carthage leader Hannibal who caused massive damage to the Romans. He gave Romans an excellent cavalry and Hannibal suffered his first and last defeat. Quintus Fabius Maximus was very well known conservative, who was appointed as a dictator. Many soldiers were lost, many of them fell of their horses, only one elephant stayed alive. Immediately after the battle, he began his march to Italy, which suggests that his army was not badly damaged by the battle, and it may be that a truer image of the battle would be as a delaying action fought by Hasdrubal to allow his army to begin it's march. What is clear is that on Varro's day of command, the Romans decided to offer battle, and Hannibal accepted. The Numidians remained loyal to Muttines, and when the Romans arrived at the city, opened one of the city gates and let them in. Shortly after quelling an uprising in Carthage, Hamilcar transferred its activities to Spain; counting that by exploiting the resources of this rich peninsula (precious metals, and soil fertility) will strengthen the power of the state and army for the forthcoming war with Rome. This is an incomplete list of battles of the Second Punic War, showing the battles on the Italian peninsula and some in Africa, in Sicily and Hispania.. 218 BC Summer: Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. However, Gallic tribes have failed to prevent him to cross river Rhône. The 4000 Numidian cavalry were on the right, facing the Latin horse. Battle of Lilybaeum – A Roman fleet of 20 quinqueremes defeated a Carthaginian fleet of 35 galleys. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. After crossing the Ebro, he spent a month subduing the tribes between the Ebro and the Pyrenees, and left a force 11,000 strong to keep the area quiet. Second Punic War (218-201 BC) The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) the War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. So the Second Punic War, largest conflict on antiquity, is mainly known by epic battles like Cannae or Zama and great leaders – Hannibal Barca and Scipio Africanus. In 195 BC, Hannibal had to run away from Carthage. Regardless, the treaty did not last. The momentous decision was made to recall Hannibal from Italy to lead the defence. Cnaeus was killed, and his army overwhelmed.