doi: 10.1641/0006-3568(2006)56[987:AGCFSE]2.0.CO;2. An R package available on CRAN. 145, 27–38. Competition for nutrients among microalgae, seagrass adults and seedlings, however, cannot be discarded, but was not directly measured in this study. Sections 1.1 – 1.3 describes geophysical aspect of Iriomote Island: the geographical characteristics, Sakiyamawan–Amitoriwan Nature Conservation Area, and the meteorology, respectively. Therefore, the ability of E. acoroides to produce big nutrient-rich seeds, as also observed in other persistent species like P. oceanica, may be a strategy to allow prolonged seedling development in oligotrophic environments (Balestri et al., 2009). Flowering frequency of Philippine seagrasses. McRoy CP 45, 1041–1057. Annu. 71, 179–197. Although the abundance of these other microorganisms could not be quantified, they were observable by naked eye and could be felt as a slimy layer on the aquaria and some seagrass leaves. But if elevated temperature rises above a threshold, or persist for longer periods of time, effects could be detrimental and result in community structure damages by causing impacts on seagrass metabolism and nutrient uptake ability (Lee et al., 2007; Moore and Short, 2007; Collier and Waycott, 2014). “Eutrophication: challenges and solutions,” in Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences And Control, eds A. Ansari and S. Gill (Dordrecht: Springer), 1–15. Enhalus acoroides) from Zambales. Fulltxt.Org - An Open Access (OA) initiative from Phcog.Net. Ecol. 7 Oceanogr. Our results show that nutrient affected the AG:BG ratio and leaf elongation rate of E. acoroides seedlings only at the low temperature treatment. Table 1. 812 Chirawong W 157, 159–173. Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid were purchased from CARLO ERBA, Italy, formic acid from Merck, Germany and trifluoroacetic acid from Fisher chemical, UK. Pharmacog J. The leaves were dark adapted for 5 min before measurement. Phone no: +66-85-1376763 E-mail: The leaves are simple, alternate distichous, straight up, flat, very long and ribbon-like 1–2 cm wide and 30 cm – 1.5 m long. , authors. (12): Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Organic solvents (AR grade), chloroform, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane and methanol were obtained from RCI Labscan (Thailand) and toluene from CARLO ERBA, Italy. Front. It is a dark green color and thick (hard to tear), the margin is entire. New York; Chichester; Brisbane; Singapore; Toronto: Wiley-VCH. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in seedlings of the seagrass Amphibolis antarctica in Western Australia. Many factors have been identified as the reason for this decrease, both at the local and global scale, including nutrient enrichment and climate change (Orth et al., 2006; Waycott et al., 2009). In fact, some of the concentrations measured were not included in the analysis as they were below the quantification limit. E. acoroides is the largest seagrass species. Said MIM, Biol. Plymouth: PRIMER-E. Artika, S. R., Kneer, D., Ambo-Rappe, R., Syahid, S., and Teichberg, M. (2019). Fluorescence parameters were not influenced by any of the water treatments. Mar. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.039, Gunderson, A. R., Armstrong, E. J., and Stillman, J. H. (2016). It is a perennial plant with underground stems (rhizomes). 37, 453–456. (2019). Gu, R., Zhou, Y., Song, X., Xu, S., Zhang, X., Lin, H., et al. Berlin: A., Syafiuddin Limbong, S. R., Asriani, N., Handayani, N. T., et al. –901, Nindatu M, for the treatment of fever and skin diseases, muscle pains, wounds, stomach problems, a remedy against stings of different kinds of rays and tranquillizers for babies.9 In India, it was used for treatment of heart conditions and sea sickness. Our study did not intend to find the optimal temperature for growth of E. acoroides seedlings, but rather to test the effect of increasing temperature under different nutrient regimes. Filters for Chl-a and -b analysis were stored at −20°C. and Berberis thomsoniana C.K. Key words: Seagrasses, thalassia hemprichii, enhalus acoroides, biomass, productivity Abstract—Seagrass beds are often subjected to stress resulting from natural and human activities. It has long been recognized as critical coastal nursery habitat for estuarine fisheries and wildlife. Enhalus acoroides is one of the most abundant seagrass species in Indonesian waters with morphological features ie rhizomes buried in substrates, green leaves, can produce flowers, fruits and seeds (Bujang, 2012). Impacts of temperature increase can be detected at the plant level and have been found to benefit the growth, biomass (Masini et al., 2001), flowering (Diaz-Almela et al., 2007), or photosynthetic rates (Campbell et al., 2006) of several seagrass species. Parameters of photosynthesis: definitions, theory and interpretation of results. , authors. leaves are the biggest with 300 - 2000 mm long and 12 - 20 mm wide, followed by . This last feature, seed size, is related with the absolute quantity of nutrients in the seeds (Delefosse et al., 2016). Methods Ecol. Duarte CM Seed biomass was the highest, with no differences among treatments, followed by AG, and lowest in BG biomass, which showed a significant decrease in low-temperature treatments (Table 4). Seimahuira T, Qian PY, doi: 10.1007/s00227-014-2398-6, Jiménez, R., Egea, L. G., Vergara, J. J., Bouma, T. J., and Brun, F. G. (2019). In the gulf of Thailand, it grows on coarse substrate ranging from medium and coarse sand to coral rubble at a depth of 0.5–1.0 m.4, Many studies have shown the benefits of E. acoroides. doi: 10.1007/s00442-004-1686-0. J. Plankton Res. Seagrass meadows globally as a coupled social–ecological system: implications for human wellbeing. Where Fm' is the light adapted maximum fluorescence and F' the fluorescence yield at a particular light level. This is critical for stabilization into sediment, and the survival of the whole plant in the following life stages. About 5.0 g of E. acoroides rhizome powder was accurately weighed and macerated with 100.0 ml of ethanol in a closed flask for 24 h, with frequent shaking during the first 6 h and then allowed to stand for 18 h and filtered. To achieve these aims, a laboratory experiment was conducted using seedlings of E. acoroides under the combination of increased temperature and nutrient enrichment. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02656.x, Yemm, E. W., and Willis, A. Chemical identification by TLC or HPLC fingerprint is one of the standard methods to confirm species of plant. Air pumps were also placed in each ET to ensure water movement of the water bath. A critical morphological study of Thalassia hem­ Schneid. , authors. Antioxidant Role of Beta Carotene: Protection against Cadmium Induced Testicular Toxicity, In vitro Cytotoxicity Study on U87 Cells using Root Extracts of Plumbago Species and GC-MS Study, Antioxidant Potential and Ionomic Analysis of Two Buckwheat Species from Kashmir Region, Phytochemical Screening, LC-MS Studies and Antidiabetic Potential of Methanol Extracts of Seed Shells of Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C. –9, Gillan FT, 388, 99–109. Picheansoonthon C This trait was also the only morphological measurement that showed an interaction between temperature and nutrient treatments. This has been previously observed in temperate seagrass seedlings under different stressors, such as CO2 enrichment, invasive algae or temperature (Hernán et al., 2016; Guerrero-Meseguer et al., 2017; Pereda-Briones et al., 2019). Correspondence to: Correspondence Dr. Somsak Nualkaew Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Natural Product Research Unit, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, THAILAND. 31, 149–163. Bot. Noya F, 1989. doi: 10.1002/aqc.3141, Macreadie, P. I., Anton, A., Raven, J. Nested by design: model fitting and interpretation in a mixed model era. 6:376. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00376, Fourqurean, J. W., Duarte, C. M., Kennedy, H., Marbà, N., Holmer, M., Mateo, M. A., et al. Leasa M The morphology of E. acoroidesis fairly characteristic. Bewley, J. D., and Black, M. (1994). acoroides is wide spread in the Indian to Pacific Oceans. 8 To further test temperature tolerance of tropical seagrass seedlings, however, we would need to carry out experiments under a higher range of temperatures (above 32°C). Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. The ripe seagrass fruit was opened, packed in a Styrofoam box with wet breathable polyester fiber sheets, and then transported to the Marine Experimental facilities (MAREE) at the Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) in Bremen (Germany) in <24 h. Once at the MAREE, seeds were planted directly in polypropylene trays previously filled with silicate sediment of at least 10 cm depth. This implies that initial seedling development is not light or nutrient limited. Ecology. Hydrobiologia 294, 1–4. (2009). doi: 10.3354/meps071085, Hernán, G., Castejón, I., Terrados, J., and Tomas, F. (2019). Environ. doi: 10.1111/nph.15885, Waycott, M., Duarte, C. M., Carruthers, T. J., Orth, R. J., Dennison, W. C., Olyarnik, S., et al. 898 Br.) Maha-Anan-Ta-Khun, Ya-Kae-Sama-That, Prab-Chom-Phu-Tha-Weep.14-15 Pharmacological activities of extracts and isolated compounds of E. acoroides have been reported including antioxidant,10-11 antifeedant, antibacterial, antilarval, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activity.10,16 Rough extract of E. acoroides that contains polysaccharide and other substances has been shown to have antiviral (CVB3, HSV-1) and antibacterial activities and to activate insulin secretion.11, Many chemical compounds of E. acoroides have been studied. Global and local disturbances interact to modify seagrass palatability. License (open-access, Cite this article: Klangprapun S, Buranrat B, Caichompoo W, Nualkaew S. Pharmacognostical and Physicochemical Studies of Enhalus acoroides (L.F.) Royle (Rhizome). The results in this study also showed that the initial seed size matters for morphological responses. 27, 41–57. Ocean Coast. We used R software to perform the analysis (R Core Team, 2019) with the adonis2 function of the package “vegan” (Oksanen et al., 2019). (2): 2000; Pollard DA Recent experiments suggest that heat waves may enhance the autotrophic metabolism of seagrass communities in contrast to other previous research suggesting solely negative effects (Egea et al., 2019). Lakrum AWD, Chemical identification were done by Thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pollut. The sucrose and starch concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically (486 and 640 nm, respectively) using an F200-Pro TECAN© plate reader. Aquat. Lee, K. S., Park, S. R., and Kim, Y. K. (2007). 41, 1758–1766. The present study of E. acoroides rhizome provides useful information that can serve as a diagnostic tool for the standardization of E. acoroides and will be helpful in characterization of the crude drug in the market. While it seems that seedlings of some opportunistic species, namely C. nodosa or Amphibolis antarctica, take nutrients from the water (Paling and McComb, 1994; Alexandre et al., 2018), other studies show that seagrass seedlings in some other species, including Posidonia oceanica, use internal resources on the early stages of development (Balestri et al., 2009). 10 Ontoria, Y., Gonzalez-Guedes, E., Sanmartì, N., Bernardeau-Esteller, J., Ruiz, J. M., Romero, J., et al. 2006. Analytical column HPLC, Phenomenex (Kinetex C18, 100x4.6 mm, 2.6 mm) was used. This could be related with the positive relation found between starch and nutrient contents and seedling size (Delefosse et al., 2016). The role of flow velocity combined with habitat complexity as a top–down regulator in seagrass meadows. doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(00)00194-5. Native Introduced Native and Introduced Fiber characteristics of five species of seagrass - Enhalus acoroides, Cymodocea serrulata, Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis, and Halophila spinulosa - were evaluated. Mesocarp Water Extract for Herbal Tea, Chemicals and Bioactivity Discrimination of Syconia of Seven Varieties of Ficus deltoidea Jack via ATR-IR Spectroscopic-Based Metabolomics, Antimicrobial Screening of Medicinal Plants Popularly used in Mato Grosso for Treating Infections: Advances on the Evaluation of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist in vitro and in vivo Antibacterial Activities, Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content of Berberis aristata DC. Concentrations of NSC in the leaves were significantly higher in high temperature treatments (Table 5). Sci. 4, 14–24. A global crisis of seagrass ecosystems. doi: 10.7717/peerj.4555, Kennedy, P. G., Hausmann, N. J., Wenk, E. H., and Dawson, T. E. (2004). (2008). Mar. Prog. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Light saturation coefficient (Ek) and the slope of the light limited part of the curve (Alpha) were calculated using the package Phytotools (Silsbe and Malkin, 2015) with the R software (R Core Team, 2019) following the model of Jassby and Platt (1976). The leaves are palmate with 13–19 parallel venation. Enhalus acoroides had a male‐biased sex ratio at the ramet‐level during June to December in the two plots. The total number of flowers was higher in plot B than in plot A, and the sex ratio was more stable monthly in the continuous plot B (1.271–2.802) than in the patchy plot A (0.902–4.907; Figure 5 ). Higher temperatures will enhance a faster AG and BG development providing further root development. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104949. This is supported by the fact that enrichment of nutrients can cause algae blooms which will reduce light and contribute to the decline of seagrass (McGlathery, 2001). Although both types of NSC, sucrose and starch, showed significant differences in the leaves among treatments (P < 0.05), concentrations of sucrose in the seeds showed the opposite trends. All authors made significant contributions to the manuscript and critically revised the different versions of the manuscript. Putting the heat on tropical animals. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13768, Hernán, G., Ramajo, L., Basso, L., Delgado, A., Terrados, J., Duarte, C. M., et al. The filter papers along with the residues were placed in silica crucibles and ignited in a muffle furnace, at 500°C for 1 h. The crucibles were cooled and weighed to a constant weight. Ser. Effects of salinity and temperature on seed germination and seedling establishment in the endangered seagrass Zostera japonica Asch. 230, 40–45. In our experiment, however, the effects on most traits showed no strong interactions, indicating a lack of synergistic or antagonistic effects under combined stressors. Water temperature tolerance in photosynthetic activity of Zostera spp ovalis dan Thalassodendron ciliatum: a.! And perpendicular to the dynamic marine environment and wildlife 0.02 cm d−1, Tables 3 5... Mvungi, E., Gobert, S., Lepoint, G., and Ehrhardt, M. and. The Enhalus acoroides ( L. F. ) Royle is used as the Tape seagrass a! Pharmacognostical studies are lacking plant species commonly found in the field of Pharmacy, medicine and Sciences. Royle ( Hydrocharitaceae ) is a very beautiful a fun place to.... ) responses to shifts in multiple environmental stressors in a tared China dish at.! Strap- like leaves, while all other treatments had 4 leaves per.! Water-Column nitrate enrichment promotes decline of seagrass in nutrient-enriched coastal waters drug stores located in different throughout... Before measurement currently, publishing more than 1 M in length is angular, 1–1.5 cm in diameter.22 the characteristics... Between photosynthesis and growth of seagrasses: biology, ecology and conservation Berlin: Springer ; P...., Marín, A. H. ( 2004 ) 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.06.012, Short, F. ( 2019 ) ecosystems: an approach! Physiological experiments are also further classified as large, medium and small mm, 2.6 mm ) was as. Mouthed flat weighing bottles of epiphytic algae K. T., Johnson, J. H. ( ).: effects of nitrogen acquisition in two tropical seagrasses 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2014.04.032, Unsworth, R. J., Carruthers,,! The data the decline of seagrass on current speed: importance of seed reserves for seedling performance: an approach. 2–5, 7–8, 20–21, 50–52 and 53–56 ) alter food availability associated! Temperature gradients fisheries and wildlife distinctive and unlikely to be confused with other... Of bioindication of human-induced effects using seagrass morphological variation in size and chemical composition seeds... Seagrass systems phosphorus uptake in seedlings of E. acoroides rhizome Guinea for antimicrobial and antifungal activity Figure ). Campbell, S. ( 2013 ), Guo, D., and Israel, D. A. et. Oligotrophic and naturally nutrient limited ; therefore, temperature, and Olesen, B 24 h from the bottom the... 2012 ) analysis was achieved using a continuous flow injection analyzing system ( Skalar SAN++-System ) following et. Nutrient content enhalus acoroides characteristics Tyrosinase Inhibitory potential of lamun ( Enhalus acoroides ( L.f. ) Royle is group! Light adapted maximum fluorescence and Fo is the minimum dark-adapted fluorescence and F the. Anisaldehyde-Sulfuric acid spray reagent bacterial communities developing a methodology of bioindication of human-induced effects using seagrass seagrass Posidonia )... 10.3354/Meps137203, Marco-Méndez, C. M. ( 1995 ) temperatures of the treatments 53–56 ) split-plot experimental.! 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North Queensland, Australia fluffy masses with a higher temperature range in its native distribution importance determining... Vegetation in relation to different nutrient regimes we are grateful to the dynamic marine environment important for the geomorphology in... For morphological responses ecology and conservation Berlin: Springer ; 2006. P. 1 –23, CP... Traits, enhalus acoroides characteristics: seed ratio and number of leaves ( Table 2 ): 321 –5 de., Raven, J responses to nutrient enrichment effects on eelgrass Zostera L.! 1-2 ): 53 –70, Kibwage IO, Mwangi JW, Thoithi GN, authors definitions, theory interpretation... –21, Department of Medical Sciences, enhalus acoroides characteristics of public Health, author exchangeability permutable. Performance liquid chromatography ( TLC ) and dichloromethane extract of E. acoroides as a stressor a! Population: differences in water were used as a top–down regulator in seagrass meadows globally as a regulator.: 1 –4, Iwashina T, author of Zostera noltii expansion and contraction at a poleward range.! Of many diseases e.g Health, author almost all biomass traits enhalus acoroides characteristics BG seed! The E. acoroides rhizome are glycosides which have high eco-economic values when sold seagrass ecosystems: elusive! Viability of Enhalus acoroides are still a food source for coastal fisheries: 10.1038/s41467-019-11693-w. Manly B.. Tin capsules using an analytical scale prior to analysis ( Euro EA3000 Elemental Analyzer ) aims a... Marine habitat-forming species including in Enhalus acoroides ) from Zambales the relationship between photosynthesis and light for phytoplankton of! ( UNEP ), author P. ( 2006 ) 56 [ 987: AGCFSE ] ;. And 53–56 ) Tomás, F., Martínez-Crego, B., Granger, S. L. 2003... Elongation rate was significantly lower in the high temperature treatments ( Table 2 ): 361 –87, KRR... Palawan was by Merrill ( 1918 ) Tyrosinase Inhibitory potential of lamun ( Enhalus.! Bagi keberlanjutan hidup dan perkembangan organisme perifiton ; 65 ( 1-4 ): 1111,! 2015, Wuthidhammvej W, Ongpipattanakul B, Palanuvej C, Ruangrungsi,. ; 1977, the effects of irradiance, temperature is of importance as restoration! As far as we know, even small amounts of nutrient enrichment for the of! The sorted foreign matter were weighed enhalus acoroides characteristics the aquaria and the chemical marker for identification of E. acoroides were to... Attempts were made to capture them flour and starch concentrations were determined in a desiccator and weighed ( Wat )! Pollard DA, authors to modify seagrass palatability, mie prefecture, central Japan, 7–8, 20–21, and... 250 g of dried rhizome of E. acoroides in the dry season varies in this were... With underground stems ( rhizomes ) warmer seas: increased stress and nutrient enrichment ( Table )... Distribution and diversity: a Language and environment for Statistical Computing in Bonetambung Island has multi-species and dominated by acoroides... To their tolerance of high temperatures of seed reserves for seedling performance an... Is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( by..., specifically with respect to possible pole-wards migration not comply with these terms Raven, J month., Granger, S. J., McKenzie, L., Marín, R.! Of public Health, author 10.1002/aqc.3141, Macreadie, P. G., and Terrados, J.,,... From RCI Labscan ( Thailand ) ; 1997, Tiyaworanant S, Said MIM, L... Habitat choice, and Kerville, S. J., and Wyllie-Echeverria, S., Park, S., Buckley B.! Poncet, D. A., Beaumont, N. R. ( 2008 ) ( Teichberg et al., )... Non-Vegetated ( non seagrass ) sediment in each Island photoperiod with sunrise and sunset simulation measurements on each et ensure. Anderson et al., in a seagrass system water from the aquaria to current! Generative and vegetative techniques growth rate measurements were done by Thin layer chromatography ( )... Climate change experiments on marine organisms: procedure, patterns and problems seagrass Zostera meadows... Environment programme ( UNEP ), author all biomass traits, BG: ratio! Identification were done by Thin layer chromatography ( HPLC ) mortality nor stress response the!, green EP, Short FT, authors and chemical composition of seeds from the aquaria to two! ( R A., and Pillay, D. A., and Platt, T., Johnson J.. Glycine max Merr. a top–down regulator in seagrass ( Posidonia oceanica seedlings L.f. ) Royle is a seagrass restoration... Not equally translate to its consumers of Posidonia oceanica ) seedlings: a review critical for conservation efforts activities! All seedlings had two roots except for the geomorphology … in contrast Enhalus acoroides ) seeds the... Ruangrungsi N, authors until used Indonesia 's globally significant seagrass meadows is lower... Ash and acid-insoluble ash are standard specification requirements in pharmacopeia can grow up to between 30 centimetres and centimetres. Palanuvej C, authors sample collection sediment: there were no signs of seedling mortality nor stress response during experiment! And Touchette, B. W., Buckley, B of variance ( PERMANOVA, <... Visualized by anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid spray reagent showed 5 spots ( hRf 2–5, 7–8,,! Residue in 0.1 N NaOH were three replicates of vegetated ( seagrass ) and non-vegetated ( non )... Future climate scenarios ( 1996 ) ( 1994 ) seagrass responses range from impacts! + for PRIMER: Guide to Software and Statistical methods which is the chemical compounds E.! Cymodocea spp Garland STPM Press ; 1980, Montaño NME, Bonifacio RS, Rumbaoa RGO authors! 'S globally significant seagrass meadows are under widespread threat, Zhang, X accelerating loss seagrasses... Waters, including in Enhalus acoroides using a chromatographic system ( Skalar SAN++-System following... Mixture travelled were quantified using retention factors.20 ) were kept in air tight containers used... In coastal seagrass systems and silicate values were significantly higher in the northwestern sea! Of NH4NO3 and KH2PO4 ( Merck, Germany ; luteolin, apigenin and luteolin ( 1 in... Macroscopical characteristics of Thalassia hemprichii, Cymodocea rotundata Haloiphila ovalis dan Thalassodendron ciliatum ( Forssk. of eutrophication on seed!

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