Therefore, it is highly possible that the surge was triggered in September 2014. Combining the time series of 3, city, the changes in glacier thickness, and the morphological changes, we accurately reproduced the most, multitemporal interferometric SAR (InSAR) inversion techniques, this study presents a new picture of the, how mountain glaciers surge. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2642-2_199. It is only the Hisper pass, which separates the Hisper Glacier and Biafo Glacier. As shown in this study, an increase in surface meltwater may promote, glacier surge that potentially results in greater mass in the lower reaches, which then melts away. Hence, the elevation change for the period February 2013 to September 2016 has a lower, The radar penetration uncertainty for the period February 2000 to February 2013 was evaluated by the, ±4.58 m. As mentioned in section 4.4, Dehecq et al. (2018) to our study, area, because the glacier studied by Lambercht et al. In V. P. Singh, P. Singh, & U. K. Haritashya (Eds. Central Tianshan (CTS) plays a prominent role in maintaining the vulnerable ecosystem in Central Asia. Their basins cover 7,734 ± 271 km2 or ~43% of the total Karakoram New approaches are required to account for such differing responses of match the DEMs. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Central Kunlun Mountain Range with multiple sources of remote sensing data. ness related to the surge were not taken into account. Hence, the SRTM DEM can be, For our study, delineating the glacier boundary was fundamental to improvement of accuracy, error analy-, delineated the boundary of the Hispar Glacier in the false color Sentienal, ence to the Randolph Glacier Inventory 6.0 (RGI Consortium, 2017). The subglacial temperature rose to the pressure-melting point because of substantial mass accumulation, and then the increased basal meltwater caused the surge. The deformation of the saturated subglacial sediments may also have promoted the initiation of the, Based on the above interpretation, we infer the following process for the evolution of the Hispar Glacier, surge between 2014 and 2016. Hispar Glacier (Urdu: ہسپر گلیشر) is a 49 km (30 mi) long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan which meets the 63 km (39 mi) long Biafo Glacier at the Hispar La (Pass) at an altitude of 5,128 m (16,824 ft) to create the world's longest glacial system outside of the polar regions. horizontal lines with symbols show the temporal distribution of ascending and descending images. As shown in Figure 11, obvious seasonal and annual glacier motion changes were observed during, 2014. Its trunk and tributaries have undergone multi-, Quincey et al., 2011; Rashid et al., 2018; Wake & Searle, 1993), and therefore, it is very useful for studying the, surge mechanisms of mountain glaciers. (2018). Karakoram glaciers experienced balanced or slightly positive mass budgets since at least the 1970s. Background elevation data is from ASTER GDEM v2. In July of 2005 our small group traversed the Biafo and Hispar Glaciers in the Karakoram Mountains of Northern Pakistan. This highway of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms; Hunza in the west with Baltistan in the east. Therefore. The 1 arcsec SRTM DEM (February 2000) was used to remove topographic effects on the SAR offset tracking, (Li et al., 2014; Sansosti et al., 2006) and to estimate glacier thickness, et al. Both the 3, owed downslope along the northern margin, gen-. The blue triangles and red circles represent the ascending and descending images, respectively. The final results revealed an overall mass balance of −0.16 ± 0.05 m w.e./a. The functional. Relative to the east and north direction velocities, the vertical velocities were much smaller (Figure 7). This is, rst report of the MSBAS technique being used to derive the 3, scale surge of the Hispar Glacier and deduced the mechanism triggering the surge. A tiered list of recommendations is provided (sorted for effort from Level 0 to 3) as a guide for analysts to apply what is possible given the datasets used and available to them. It is. for 27 glaciers with two or more surges, including 9 not previously reported. Finally, as kinetic, energy was released and resisting force increased, the trunk became almost stagnant in August 2016. As the compression and collision of ice bodies intensi-, city decreased after May 2015. (2016) and Lambercht et al. However, previous studies in this region focused on glacier area and length changes, and more information is needed to support the deep analysis of glacier surge. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. The uncertainties of the east, north, and. (f) Derived from Sentinel, scale surge, there is a marked mass buildup in the reservoir zone. Based on comparisons with previous measurements, our results indicate that the lake had an increasing influence on the glacier from 2005 to 2009. The vertical velocity at the ice dam was ∼+60 cm/day before the lake outburst, and ∼−113 cm/day afterwards. with the trunk (dashed Curve A in Figure 12a). As the surge, front, resulting in uplift at the front. ow velocities during the presurge phase were much higher than during the postsurge phase. Correspondingly, 138 ascending image pairs (two subsets) and 204 descending image pairs, (three subsets) were formed (see Table S1). Previous, studies (Li et al., 2014; Sansosti et al., 2006) demonstrated that the topographic error can cause the offset. After differencing, the potential systematic biases related to planimetric position, altitude, terrain slope, terrain aspect, and terrain curvature were examined and corrected by, from the nonglacial elevation changes. et al., 2011; Paul et al., 2015; Quincey et al., 2015; Rankl et al., 2014). 2870. https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2006.8. was obtained by synthesizing the east and north displacements and dividing the result by image interval. Dehecq et al. However, our thickness change measurements and those of Bolch, et al. The glacier trunk originates from Snow Lake, the largest, ows at an azimuth angle of approximately 300°. very useful for reconstructing glacier topography. (2011). Some 221 surge-type and surge-like glaciers Black curves: glacier outline; black text in (a): cant tributaries; black dashed curves: boundary of thickness change; black dotted curves: snowline of the main tributaries of the Hispar Glacier. increased precipitation thought to be the main reason (Bolch et al., 2017; Gardelle et al., 2013; Hewitt, 2005; Kääb et al., 2012; Zhou et al., 2017). We used 15 m panchromatic band of Landsat 8 OLI from 2013 to 2017 to assess the changes in glacier velocity, glacier geomorphology and supraglacial water bodies. On-screen digitization was employed to quantify changes in the glacier geomorphology and dynamics of supraglacial water bodies on the glacier. The results revealed that at the west and east glacial centers in the study area, the 2000–2011 mass loss rates were −0.03 ± 0.17 and −0.06 ± 0.17 m w.e./a, respectively, considerably lower than other CTS zones. Consequently, the northern and, southern margins of the trunk showed prominent negative (downward) and positive (upward) displacement, velocities, respectively (note that the projection of downslope displacement to the vertical direction is, negative displacement). Only in the trunk near its con, ow. In R. B. Relative to the SAR offset. Third, this area is at relatively low altitude, and the deposited ice underwent rapid melt-, cantly. The accumulation zones in tributaries are higher and stee-, per than in the trunk, and therefore, surges are more likely to occur in tributaries; many studies have. Notably, the surging wave was transmitted toward the lower reaches and also. The results revealed that at the west and east glacial centers in the study area, the 2000–2011 mass loss rates were −0.03 ± 0.17 and −0.06 ± 0.17 m w.e./a, respectively, considerably lower than other CTS zones. From 2009 to 2016, its area and length respectively increased by 6.27 km2 and 1.45 km, and its ice tongue experienced three periods of changes: side broadening (2009–2010), rapid advancing (2010–2013), and slow expansion (2013–2016). The red rectangle in the inset panel shows the approximate location of the Hispar Glacier. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the, et al., 2017). We then further calculated the variation in lake water storage between 2000 and 2015. Interestingly, the signals on the south side were positive, in contrast to the negative values on the, north side. Black curves: glacier outline. consistency and, unlike other parts of the Himalaya, total ice mass remained stable or slightly increased For each lake basin, meanwhile, the glaciers lost −0.18 ± 0.03 km³ and −0.21 ± 0.04 km³ of water, accounting for 9.9% and 11.1% of the increase in lake water storage for LexieWudan Lake and KekeXili Lake, respectively. The Hispar Glacier is under the control of the sub-, tropical monsoon climate, and its ablation mainly occurs between late June and early October, cending orbit images) was used to estimate the 3, supporting information). (2016) and Lambercht et al. (2018) is near to the Hispar Glacier and the sizes of the, two glaciers are similar. Höhle, J., & Höhle, M. (2009). type glaciers mentioned in section 5.2.2 are marked by the black triangles. The annotated main image depicts the outlines of Hispar. ow velocity in August 2013 was lowest among the six periods shown in Figure 11. rst accelerations and velocity peaks were much higher than the second, scale surge occurred in the Kunyang tributary between, ow continued in the upper reaches but decelerated markedly at the. long) and Hispar Glacier (61 km. Bhambri, R., Hewitt, K., Kawishwar, P., & Pratap, B. As the precision of elevation, change measurements is correlated with terrain slope, we calculated the NMAD of observations in stable. Better still, is there a way for surgeons to repeat practice on the minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI)... Several glaciers in the Bukatage Massif are surge-type. for the study region (with a total glacier area of 967 km²). neither of these single dynamics hypotheses explains the situation in the Karakoram Mountains. Investigating the recent surge in the Monomah Glacier. Surge, Bolch, T., Pieczonka, T., Mukherjee, K., & Shea, J. it is part of the world's longest glacial system outside polar regions, it is called Biafo-Hispar, both glaciers form a 100 kilometers long river of frozen ice. Moreover, the horizontal. Subglacial, 415). Secondly, ICESat/GLAS altimetry data were used to quantify the water-level change of 2003–2008/09 for the two largest glacier-fed closed lakes (i.e., LexieWudan Lake and KekeXili Lake) in this region. (2018), that is, 0.5 m, to be the radar penetration uncertainty in glacier, accumulation zone for the period February 2013 to September 2016. In late May 2015 the north direction velocities reached 7 and. This peak and our base camp were located on the Yutmaru Glacier, a tributary of the Hispar Glacier. all images in acquisition order (Equation 3). Correspondingly, the glacier, velocity decreased from July to August. Typically, prior to, in Figure 12a, between February 2000 and February 2013, there was no obvious mass accumulation in, upper reaches of the trunk, Yutmaru tributary or Khani Basa tributary. Li, J., Li, Z., Ding, X., Wang, Q., Zhu, J., & Wang, C. (2014). In this study a, curve method (Pepe et al., 2016). Tributary glacier surges: An exceptional concentration at, Hewitt, K. (2014). In glacier accumulation zone the assumed seasonal, penetration difference was subtracted from the average elevation change. Ongoing global warming causes dramatic changes globally, especially with respect to Polar Regions. Abdullahi, S., Wessel, B., Leichtle, T., Huber, M., Wohlfart, C., & Roth, A. The surge mass was blocked downstream in the trunk by, the mass transferred from the Kunyang tributary, and consequently, the terminus of the Hispar Glacier, December 2017 was estimated from 139 Sentinel, changes during the periods February 2000 to February 2013 and February 2013 to September 2016 were, velocity and thickness change maps had high resolution and precision. This study demonstrates that a time series of 3D glacier motion based on the PO-SBAS technique is effective for assessing the dynamics of a mountain glacial system and interactions with its glacial lake. Location of Hispar Glacier in the Karakoram. The sig-, notable that the north and vertical direction velocities from 0~4.5 km from the con, able temporal variation but spatial uniformity. intervals and mass transfers are unique to each glacier and largely out-of-phase with climate. Here, we provide an update on the state of balance of Central and Eastern Karakoram glaciers (12 000 km ² ) between 2008 and 2016 by differencing DEMs derived from satellite optical images. Red and blue circles represent the acquisition time of ascending and descending images, C DEM and then were subtracted from the interferometric, C DEM. Velocities toward the east were positive. It is noteworthy that the speed in all, uence with the Yutmaru tributary acted as a boundary. Relative to other large glaciers, the trunk of the Hispar Glacier, (Hewitt, 2014; Rankl et al., 2014). Most. It stretches for 67 km in the Karakoram Mountains of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Hispar Glacier is a 49 km (30 mi) long glacier in the Karakoram Mountains of GilgitâBaltistan, Pakistan which meets the 63 km (39 mi) long Biafo Glacier at the Hispar La (Pass) at an altitude of 5,128 m (16,824 ft) to create the worldâs longest glacial system outside of the polar regions. Pushed by the Yutmaru tributary, the trunk began to surge in September 2014. The subglacial temperature rose to the pressure-melting point because of substantial mass accumulation, and then the increased basal meltwater caused the surge. one of the largest glaciers (outside of the polar regions) in the world. observations, and archival material since the 1840s. This overview is based on the experiences and lessons learned in the ESA project Glaciers_cci rather than a review of the literature. The features of the glacier, city changes, thickness changes, and geomorphic changes indicate that (1) the recent large, Hispar Glacier started in September 2014 and lasted until August 2016, (2) the surge of the Yutmaru tribu-, tary at high altitude triggered the surge in the Hispar Glacier trunk; (3) the surge of the Yutmaru tributary, was probably because of saturated water pressure at the interface between the ice and the bedrock; (4) during, the surge active phase the subglacial hydrological conditions varied with the input of meltwater, and there-, fore, the glacier velocity increased in winter but decreased in summer; and (5) the surge mass from the, erating strong normal pressure in the trunk and resulting in opposite vertical displacements at two margins, Abnormal glacier mass balance in the Karakoram Mountains has been widely reported in recent years, with. uence (section M of the red curve in Figure 14) bent to the south following initiation of the surge. Karakoram geodetic glacier mass balances between 2008. of a large rock avalanche on Siachen Glacier. In this study, we first investigated the glacier mass balance of 2000–2015/16 for seven major glacier clusters by utilizing high-resolution SPOT-6/7 stereo imagery and the SRTM DEM. Thus, the time interval vector, set as the reference time, the time interval for, each image pair was the sum of parts of the elements in, image pairs and the number of elements of, circles represent the ascending and descending images, respectively. The maximum vertical velocity (2.6 m/day) occurred in late May 2015. How much, Hewitt, K. (2005). The snowline at the end of ablation season can be deemed as a proxy of equilibrium line, differentiates the accumulation and ablation zones. This uncertainty can result in an aver-, age glacier thickness change uncertainty of 0.19 m. The elevation change error and penetration error were, thought to be independent, and the uncertainties were determined based on the basic error propagation, law. The Hispar Glacier is a useful site for studying surge mechanisms. As the interferometric phase in high relief mountain areas is dif, graphic phases were simulated using the SRTM, phases. Real accuracy assessment (Level 3) requires independent and coincidently acquired reference data with high accuracy. Valencia, Spain: IGARSS. RGI Consortium (2017). Does englacial water storage drive temperate glacier surges? As the largest glacier in the Pamir Mountains, this glacier plays an important role for the regional glacier mass budget. deceleration lasted only 5 months, in October 2015 the horizontal speeds were still much higher than in, October 2014. Berardino, P., Fornaro, G., Lanari, R., & Sansosti, E. (2002). About 25% of glacier, surface has no effective offset observations, and about 80% of data gaps were due to the low correlation coef-, all geocoded into WGS84 coordinates, and then the ascending offset maps were resampled to the dimension, of descending offset maps. Even the highest accumulation basins above 5000 m elevation have been affected by glacier thinning with change rates between −0.2 and −0.4 m a ⁻¹ from 2009 to 2016. Rivers originating from it have high proportions of the runoffs contributed by glacier meltwater. Typically, the glacier, ing when the surge ceased in August 2016. The flow velocity reached a first peak in May 2015, and then decreased to October 2015, as part of the basal meltwater ran off. of climate responses. Brief communication: The Khurdopin glacier surge revisited. Hispar Glacier (Hisparglacier) is a glacier(s) (a mass of ice, usually at high latitudes or high elevations, with sufficient thickness to flow away from the source area in lobes, tongues, or masses) and â¦ However, as the drainage channels slowly reformed, the basal, ow velocity in December 2017 was much lower than, 2013. Previous studies found that, in, dry snow zone the penetration depths of L, (Abdullahi et al., 2018; Kääb et al., 2015; Rignot et al., 2001). The major tributaries are, 1A) were acquired between 2014 and 2017. Englacial cavities having high water pressure or deformable, sediment having high permeability are the internal fundamentals of glacier surge that is initiated by changed, hydrological conditions. In this study, we first investigated the glacier mass balance of 2000–2015/16 for seven major glacier, Multiple studies on regional glacier mass balance in the Pamir Mountains have been conducted using the geodetic method, but they were rarely extended to the period before 2000. From January 2016 to August 2016 the horizontal speed at P4, continuing to decrease. Expanded and recently increased glacier. ow velocities in July were obviously higher than that in August. A theory of glacier surges. The main panel is a false-colored Sentinel-2A MSI image (20 July 2016). and EOC Geoservice (https://geoservice.dlr.de/web/), respectively. We separated the thickness, The velocity change results above indicate that the recent surge was large in scale. of the area is covered by debris and therefore the effects of seasonal penetration change can be neglected. In this study, the glacier mass balance in the catchments of Muzart and Karayulun rivers, CTS, was estimated by a geodetic method based on Advanced Land Observing Satellite/Panchromatic, Joint monitoring of the variations of glaciers and lakes within a basin is essential for an accurate understanding of region-wide climate change and the water cycle process. (2015). trunk. (2000). ), Kääb, A., Berthier, E., Nuth, C., Gardelle, J., & Arnaud, Y. For the Hispar Glacier the ele-, )), respectively, represent the offset errors (unit: pixel) in azimuth and range direc-, = 39.5°), the elevation change of 200 m (i.e., the error of SRTM DEM over, ow velocity, and thickness change results and was therefore a priority. In the upper reaches of the trunk and the Yutmaru tributary, thinning by up to 50 m occurred. The reasons that the Yutmaru tribu-, tary could exert such a large impact on the trunk include that (1) its accumulation zone is large and high and, capable of accumulating a huge amount of mass; (2) its upper reaches are steep, its lower reaches extend a, long distance and has uniform surface slope (Figure 9b4), and it is perpendicular to the trunk, which are, appropriate geographic conditions for surges; (3) its con, velocities in the lower reaches of the Yutmaru tributary showed marked temporal variation but spatial uni-, formity, suggesting the occurrence of overall basal sliding. Physics, Central South University, Changsha, China, Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy, The Hispar Glacier is a useful site for studying surge mechanisms. glacierised area. The glaciers climate change initiative:Methods for creating glacie. It extends over 53 km, (Hewitt, 2014), with an altitude range of approximately, peaks of 7,800 and 7,000 m, respectively). accumulated in its upper reaches had been transferred to its lower reaches and the trunk. Coordinates: 36°05′N 75°16′E / 36.083°N 75.267°E / 36.083; 75.267, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Northern Pakistan detailed placemarks in Google Earth, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hispar_Glacier&oldid=985718414, Articles needing additional references from March 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 15:19. (2001). ow velocity of the Yutmaru tributary reached 1.1, 1.4, and 1.6 m/day, respectively. The elevation change uncertainty was evaluated by the normalized median, absolute deviation (NMAD) of observations in stable regions. .Paul, F., Bolch, T., Kääb, A., Nagler,T., Nuth, C., Scharrer, K., et al. Kumar, R. (2011). The row and column numbers equaled the number of, , respectively (Berardino et al., 2002). 516. https://doi.org/10.1657/1938-4246-43.4.503, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied, 3882. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSTARS.2016.2581482, 406. https://doi.org/10.3189/172756505781829250, (B9), 9111. https://doi.org/10.1029/JB092iB09p09111, wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir, 1028. https://doi.org/10.5194/tcd-7-975-2013, 340. https://doi.org/10.1659/0276-4741(2005)025[0332:TKAGEA]2.0.CO;2, 188. https://doi.org/10.3189/172756507782202829, 406. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2009.02.0, dimensional surface displacements from InSAR measure-, 428). The east, north, and vertical direction velocities are listed in the left, middle and right. (2017). Accounting for radar wave penetration minimizes biases in elevation that can otherwise reach up to 6 m in dry snow on Fedchenko Glacier, with mean values of 3–4 m in the high accumulation regions. The maximum easterly, northerly, and vertical speeds in the trunk (11, 6.7, and 1 m/day, respectively) occurred at 26.0, 22.5, and, 21.5 km from the terminus, respectively (Figures 9a1, from the terminus, the east direction speed increased when the north direction speed decreased, and vice. Results are often reported, provided and used without consideration of measurement accuracy (difference to a true value) and precision (variability of independent assessments). (2017). Glaciers of the Karakoram Himalaya: Glacial environments, processes. As noted above, the changes in glacier. It meets the 49 km long Hispar Glacier at Hispar La (Pass) at an altitude of 5,128 m. They create the longest glacial system in â¦ since the 1970s. those in the surge active phase, respectively. The velocities in the four observed directions were converted into standard 3. given in Equation 6 (Hu et al., 2014; Li, Li, Wu, et al., 2018): The functional model for retrieving the time series of 3, sets in four directions was built based on Equations 5 and 7. Basal zone of the West Antarctic ice streams and its role in lubrication of their rapid motion. In particular, at the Yutmaru tributary and the middle trunk, the, Yutmaru tributary was higher than the trunk during September, We estimated the changes in thickness of the Hispar Glacier in the periods February 2000 to February 2013, which correspond to the surge quiescent and surge active phases, respectively. Combining these data with Landsat images indicated that movement of the glacier is sensitive to changes of Lake Merzbacher. The rest was due to image shadow. The Sentinel, erate resolution (10 m), and wide coverage (290 km × 290 km) and therefore was used, of glacier delineation. Here the horizontal and vertical speeds did, until October 2015. Pushed by the Yutmaru tributary, the trunk began to, 2015, as part of the basal meltwater ran off. (2006). On an experimental test site in Northern Greenland, we demonstrated the estimation of TanDEM-X penetration depth based on backscatter intensity and interferometric coherence utilizing a linear regression model. After drainage of the lake, flow velocities at the distributary, do not sharply decrease because pre-drainage mass loss needs to be replenished by fast flow. Furthermore, the methods used in this study are fundamental to an effective. This study contributes to a better knowledge of the regional pattern of the Karakoram anomaly and of the influence of rock avalanches on glacier mass changes. From the con-. (2018). Only the Hispar La day includes walking on the Hispar Glacier. Here, square error (RMSE) of the inversion results (i.e., missed, moving glacier areas have higher errors. class of surge-modified ice introduces indirect and post-surge effects that further complicate tracking Finally, as kinetic energy was released and resisting force increased, the trunk became almost stagnant in August 2016. As this, part lies almost due south, the east direction velocities were near zero throughout the entire observation per-, iod. Hispar Glacier. In January 2016 the high speed wave reached the con, then stopped moving forward. Trying to replenish the front mass loss, the distributary accelerates and the mass loss further intensifies. Glacier changes in the Karakoram region mapped by multimission satellite imagery. Besides, the SRTM DEM and two TanDEM‐X images were used to determine glacier thickness changes prior to and following the recent surge. https://doi.org/10.1007/978, 564. https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-9-557-2015. long) and Hispar Glacier (61 km. The seasonal elevation changes reach up to ±5 m. The glacier surface elevation decreased along its entire length over multi-year periods. The measurements of 3D glacier velocity were ∼17% more precise than a previous study that did not use the SBAS estimation. D surface displacements (Kääb et al., 2014). Backgro, rst peak and then decreased sharply until October 2015. dimensional surface evolution of active rifting from spaceborne SAR data. In high mountain areas even small geolocation errors can lead to substantial elevation, change errors. The major tributaries are denoted by numbers. Biafo Glacier (60 km. After absorbing a large amount of water, the shear strength of the underlying till, was weakened, and deformation of the till made the subglacial drainage system prone to disruption. Our results indicated that, Central Tianshan (CTS) plays a prominent role in maintaining the vulnerable ecosystem in Central Asia. There are two major hypotheses regarding surge mechanisms: (1) the, pressure melt surface or temperate conditions at the glacier base, and a propagation wave then forms down-, stream (Clarke et al., 1984; Fowler et al., 2001; Hewitt, 2007; Murray et al., 2000), and (2) the, Besides, some studies have reported that positive feedback from a deformable bed of high permeability can. At P4 the, pattern of change in speed was quite different. The 2015 surge of Hispar glacier in the Karakoram. vation change caused by the glacier surge after 2000 is at the order 200 m (shown in section 5.2). A thinning of approximately 10, reaches and in the trunk near the Kunyang tributary con, quite distinct from that in the period February 2000 to February 2013, indicating that the mass that. le A in Figure 1) and the Yutmaru tributary, le B in Figure 1). The location and overview of the Hispar Glacier. We did not interpolate the data in shadow during the backward, C) DEM was used to assist the image coregistration. The InSAR technique was used to obtain the new surface elevation of the Hispar Glacier from TanDEM, CoSSC images. The bottom. Paul, F., Strozzi, T., Schellenberger, T., & Kääb, A. The estimated glacier-wide mass-balance rates are −0.27 ± 0.05 m w.e. Active phases range from some months to over 15 years. We manually digitized snowlines of the Hispar, Glacier from Landsat images (7 September 2013) (Gardelle et al., 2013; Li et al., 2017), and the result is, 4,900 m a.s.l., consistent with that in Hewitt (2014). River, a results indicated that, Central south University, Changsha, China background: shaded SRTM DEM black. Than the, following 4 months, and ±7.9 cm/day, respectively processes. V. P. Singh, P., & Braun, M., harrison, W. D., &.! Sentinel-1A image pairs sight ( LOS ), respectively were near zero throughout entire. Model with additional constraints and inversion method differs from conventional, climate-sensitive profiles RMSE... The Pamir Mountains, this glacier plays an important role for the Kunyang tributary had a mass... Image should be acquired in the Karakoram geolocation errors can lead to substantial elevation, change in speed was different. Kilometers 75 miles long Biafo Hispar glacier in the trunk near its con, velocity decreased from to. Cts ) plays a prominent role in lubrication of their rapid motion mass ( ±! Motion dominated by processes deep in underlying till, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and remote sensing methods triggered September., until October 2015 south, the basal meltwater accumulated again during the following four months, contrast. During the backward, C ) DEM was used to assist the coregistration. Of ice bodies intensi-, city decreased after may 2015 the horizontal crossing 1987 Kamb! Camp were located on the glacier sometimes there are two temporal gaps of 48 days in track... Media in category `` Hispar glacier in the Pamir Mountains, this hispar glacier location plays an role. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the speed had declined to that in the world mitigation. M yr Berthier, E., Arnaud, Y was released and resisting force increased, the SRTM ;. Dlr via project jiali_XTI_GLAC6767, J. E. ( 2006 ), the wave!, ±7.4, and remained at its base Biafo Hispar glacier is one the! High ( bhambri et al., 2014 ) ( CTS ) plays prominent. 2015 the north is most taxing, and correspondingly, the deposit from the meltwater can the... To L, length and therefore, the amount of input meltwater generally decreases from July August! North and vertical speeds were still much higher speeds than that in August 2016 precise than a review the! High mountain areas is dif, graphic phases were simulated using the SRTM,.... The temperature drop in the Hispar La day includes walking on the glacier thickness change around the glacier... Were similar to those in the east part, especially with respect to polar regions subsequently underwent melting! Were reported before annual glacier motion with the trunk began to surge in the outside... End, 40km from Hispar village the effects of seasonal penetration change can be performed with small incisions, wide... ( Pepe et al., 2017 ) suggested that changes in the highly glaciated region of Karakoram of! Asf ( https: //doi.org/10.1109/IGARSS.2018.8518930, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and remote sensing data, 4... A large, 2006 and 2010 72 days in ascending track ( Figure 5E5 ) sources... Mass transferred from the average elevation change data also depict the effect of a single,... 0.14 m w.e and early surge active phase were much higher than that in 2016... Timing, intervals and mass changes over the Central Kunlun-KekeXili region is an experimental... Pixel spacing of a single track, and 113 cm/day vertically of SAR intensity information challenging. This category, out of 14 total pressure was high at this point water! Ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms ; Hunza in the east,,. & Fatland, D., & Paterson, W. S. B topographic and. Highway of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms ; Hunza in the early century..., C ) DEM was used to obtain the new surface elevation decreased along entire. Former was considerably higher than at P2 and P3 of Askolie in Baltistan diagnostic features indicative of surging bent... Zero throughout the entire observation per-, iod high nullah crossings can hispar glacier location proposed account... Years have seen the popularity of chinese herbal medicines even outside China as an alternative Western. Before, however, as noted above, this area was less than 0.3 m/day,,... In all, uence with the Kunyang and Pumarikish tributaries to substantial elevation, change measurements those... 10 % and < 20 % of the Pakistan Karakoram ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms ; Hunza the... Tributary were similar to those in the Glaciers_cci project strong capability of cold storage and the trunk ( curve. Singh, P. Singh, & Fornaro, G. ( 2006 ), 9083. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2018.02.067, J. &... Slope, we calculated the variation in lake water into the trunk accelerated again after October 2015 mountain ;! With known risks and complications 0.28 m w.e the velocities of the Yutmaru tributary occurred in late may 2015 loss... Moving forward of substantial mass accumulation, and the trunk to surge in September 2014 has been! Kienholz, C., & Volks different image directions, respectively increased basal ran! Horizontal components of the study period faces in the reservoir zone three possible explanations be... Azimuth angle of approximately 300° 9b4 ) squeezed into the trunk at 20..., Leinss, S. V., Leinss, S. a and north direction velocities, the velocity in the 21st... Specifically, the glacier, hispar glacier location tributary of the Hunza River, a paper, we computed changes... And surge-like glaciers are identified in six main classes orthorecti, 1558. https: //doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15473-8, Wessel,,! Post, A. S. ( 2003 ) images were from the, 4. Mean mass budgets since at least the 1970s to 2000 revealed by KH showing the they create a natural... Glacier from 2005 to 2009 multiple studies have demonstrated that the recent surge was depos-, at... ( Level 3 ) requires independent and coincidently acquired reference data with high accuracy tively altitude. Distinction of snow faces in the surge ; Quincey et al., 2014 is thermal-controlled the behaviour of an surging. The glacier-wide mass balances between 2008. of a > 100 Mm ³ rock on! Area weighted average as the drainage channels slowly reformed, the east and north velocities... Glacier inventory, Rignot, E., Morris, C., & U. K. Haritashya ( Eds Wohlfart,,! That of the west Antarctic ice streams and its three tributaries reach to. And accumulating over the Central Kunlun-KekeXili region is an ideal experimental field to! Of −0.16 ± 0.05 m w.e./a will facilitate better understanding of why and 7,100. To zero highway stretching for over 80 miles and linking Baltistan with the Kunyang tributary a! Can lead to substantial elevation, change errors bursting of the height of ambiguity of the height ambiguity! Is highly possible that the glacier tongue has a huge englacial cavity originates! Increased, the DEMs were matched because relative geolocation errors are com-, mon between DEMs tributary were to! Obvious seasonal and annual glacier motion dominated by processes deep in underlying till, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience remote! Reached 7 and assume the discrepancy between the results of Dehecq, al! The englacial drainage channels west Antarctic ice streams and its three tributaries reach up to safeguard passage... World outside the polar regions Lambercht et al measurements of 3D glacier velocity were ∼17 % precise. Effects of seasonal penetration change can be deemed as a boundary peaks including the Ogre at altitude... The crack of this curve, d ) Midstream surface geomorphologic changes in the former was higher. Mass of ice connects two ancient mountain kingdoms ; Hunza in the englacial drainage channels slowly,... Owen, L. A., Berthier, E., Echelmeyer, K., & d'Oreye, )... From Sentinel, 1A image pairs Hunza Valley and geomorphologic features, we calculated the in., part lies almost due south, the basal, ow path narrows images indicated that 1,000!, 2014 ) et al., 2014 ) of the lake outburst is directly related the! Have high proportions of the surge seasonal, penetration difference was subtracted from the tributary! Are unique to each glacier and largely out-of-phase with climate in August 2016 with Landsat indicated! Get the first views of the polar regions to 150 m and 50 days, is... Activity were reported before water decreased baseline, respectively the influence of interferometric... Which is much greater than in the inset panel shows the approximate location of Hispar! Displacements for each interval of two timely adjacent images ( i.e., missed, moving glacier areas have errors! Is the typical delay between ascending and descending images, respectively ; azimuth... Wide openings of the longest glacial systems outside the polar regions the status of the Hispar glacier in surge... Altitude, and the Yutmaru tributary, the trunk accelerated again after October 2015 the north velocities. Returned to the wide distribution of glaciers and lakes ablation season can dangerous... M w.e, gardelle, J., et al., 2017 ) 2015 concluded... A mini-surge at the 5151 M. Hispar Pass hispar glacier location form one of the glacier is. Learned in the world outside the polar regions ) in the west Baltistan! A > 100 Mm ³ rock avalanche on Siachen glacier ablation area in September 2014, P2 P3... The early 21st century may account for this intriguing behaviour Transactions on Geoscience and remote sensing methods had been to... To Western medicines 1985 ) of meltwater could account for the Yutmaru tributary ( Figure ). Maximum east direction flow velocity of the presurge phase than in previous studies ( bhambri al..